Thinking Strategies for Student Achievement: Improving Learning Across the Curriculum, K-12: Volume 2

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Thinking Strategies for Student Achievement: Improving Learning Across the Curriculum, to help K students extend their thinking capabilities and raise their achievement levels. Free Two-Day Shipping for College Students with Amazon Student “This book can be used at all grade levels and with any curriculum. Thinking Strategies for Student Achievement: Improving Learning Across the Curriculum, K (Volume 2). Publish Date: ; Binding: Paperback.

These collaborative strategies include: team work, peer mentor, paired programming and collaboration. These strategies resonate with the concept of computational participation Kafai and Burke and strategies proposed to develop this within the classroom. In addition individual teachers commented on the positive motivational impact that collaborative working has on individuals, small groups and the class itself.

In this context, digital leaders are pupils who are good at working with technology and can support others in the school. Teachers talked about relating Computing content to other aspects of the curriculum; they give examples of both relating what is being learned in Computing to other subjects taught at school and also to concepts from home so relating to real-life.

Closely related to the theme of computational thinking are the strategies that teachers use to help their students understand program code. Some of the challenges for teachers are extrinsic such as lack of resources; others such as their own subject knowledge of understanding of appropriate pedagogy are intrinsic. We find that also we can also divide the areas of challenge for students as intrinsic or extrinsic to the students too. Teachers report that students may be challenged by low mathematical ability intrinsic for example, or lack of opportunity to practise extrinsic. This gives us a framework in which to examine the challenges that we identified.

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This can be seen in Table 9 where we show a range of perceived or encountered challenges reported by teachers. Table 9 A framework for viewing challenges reported by teachers.

Examining the statements of teachers as they report what strategies work well for them in teaching Computing has enabled us to draw out particular themes. Section 3. Unplugged type activities. In our particular context, teachers who are delivering Computing are mostly those who have been delivering ICT 2 for many years, which has focused on learning software applications, and on individual work at the computer producing digital artefacts and evaluating existing products. Clearly the teaching style for teaching computer science principles is different for teachers.

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Some of the teaching methods suggested by teachers can be identified as constructive activities, based on the discussion in Section 1. It implies a need for authentic and meaningful experiences to support learning based on prior experiences and models of the world.

It may be useful to give this type of guidance to teachers on how to develop computational thinking skills in students. There is clearly an overlap between the constructivist influences on pedagogy, which have a long history, and the more recent emphasis on facilitating computational thinking skills through the teaching of computer science: in essence the suggestions for actual teaching activities derive from different motivations but may result in similar or identical activities in the classroom.

Debugging or troubleshooting skills are also important to computer science. To be able to develop these, students need more than just computational thinking skills. In this study only three of teachers commented that they had strategies to support students in this type of activity. Information and Communication Technology. Barr, V. Bringing computational thinking to K ACM Inroads, 2 , CrossRef Google Scholar. Bell, T. Computer science unplugged: school students doing real Computing without computers. Google Scholar. Ben-Ari, M. Constructivism in computer science education.

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Canterbury, UK. Brennan, K. New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking. Brown, N. Bringing computer science back into schools: Lessons from the UK.

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Unpublished report. Curzon, P. Enthusing and Inspiring with Reusable Kinaesthetic Activities. Department for Education National curriculum for England: Computing programme of study. London, England: Department for Education. Dewey, J. Experiential education. New York: Collier Books.

Diethelm, I. Students, teachers and phenomena: Educational reconstruction for computer science education. Koli, Finland: ACM. Ertmer, P. Teacher technology change: how knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture Intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42 3 , — Finger, G. Insights into the intrinsic and extrinsic challenges for implementing technology education: case studies of Queensland teachers.

International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 19 3 , — Grover, S. Kafai, Y. Connected code why children need to learn programming. Lee, I. Computational thinking for youth in practice. ACM Inroads, 2 1 , 32— Lister, R. Concrete and other neo-piagetian forms of reasoning in the novice programmer.

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In our particular context, teachers who are delivering Computing are mostly those who have been delivering ICT 2 for many years, which has focused on learning software applications, and on individual work at the computer producing digital artefacts and evaluating existing products. Appendix Table A1. Such professional development will thus need to be closely tied to the standards and curricula specific to the school, district, and state in which a particular teacher is teaching [ 64 ]. And in Kalamazoo, incentives to finish high school have proven to be powerful tools for disadvantaged students when combined with mentoring, tutoring, and after-school options. With respect to cognitive skills, the gaps shrink by 46 percent and 53 percent, respectively, after the inclusion of the covariates.

The psychology of intelligence. Selby, C. Promoting computational thinking with programming. Sengupta, P. Integrating computational thinking with K science education using agent-based computation: A theoretical framework.

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Education and Information Technologies, 18 2 , — Sentance, S. Computer science in secondary schools in the UK: Ways to empower teachers. Mittermeir Eds. Lecture notes in computer science pp. Shulman, L. Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching. American Educational Review, 15 2 , 4— Thompson, D. The role of teachers in implementing curriculum changes. ACM Google Scholar.